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 How to raise a horse

How to raise a horse
There are many things that must be provided correctly; To secure good care for the horse or horse in the event of a desire to raise it, including the following:

horse dwelling

There are many important matters related to horse housing, as follows:

Barn

When you want to establish a new barn to make it a home for horses, this matter needs to check the regulatory laws, as the laws differ according to the location, if it is within a populated area, or if it is within a rural area. It is also recommended to raise the floor of the horse barn by at least thirty centimeters from the ground. To ensure a good drainage of water through it, which is extremely important for the health of the horse; Moisture that may occur in the floor of the barn from being flooded with water can damage horses' hooves.

barn size

The size of a suitable barn for horses varies depending on many factors; Such as the size of the horse, and the period of its stay in the stable. Horses that weigh about half a ton need a barn of not less than three and a half meters in dimensions; In order to be able to move and sleep comfortably, regardless of the difference in the size of the barn, there are many basic things to make it a safe place, and with a suitable environment for it.

barn walls

It is recommended that the walls of the barn be approximately two and a half meters long; This is so that the horses cannot jump over these walls, or it can be said that the wall of the barn must be built so that it is not less than one and a half times the length of the horses themselves; The low ceilings of the barns may harm the health of the horse, and they prevent good air movement through these barns. 
As in the case of the walls of the barn, the door must also rise by more than two meters, and the width ranges from 1.0668 meters to 1,143 meters (42-45 in); In order to be safe for horses to cross through, and there are many different designs for barn doors, such as dividing the door into two separate panels, or even not covering it completely, and whatever design or material that was used to create the barn door, there is no doubt that it must be solid, and strong and free from any edges that may endanger the horse or injure the horse.

Outer Shelter

The commercial outer covers available in the market can be purchased, or made of metal, or even wood, and the side outer covers of the barn are placed on three sides; To protect horses from the wind.
It should be noted that the height of this shelter should range between two and a half to three meters, with an area of ​​ten square meters for each horse, in addition to ensuring that there is enough space to feed the horses.

the bed

There are many materials that can make a good bed in the horse’s dwelling, such as sawdust, or straw, which are two materials that may be difficult to obtain, and their price may be high, and rice husk or peanut husk can be used as a good alternative to straw and sawdust. 
bedding for horses Regardless of the nature of the material chosen, it must all be clean, and free from dust, or any other materials that may pose a threat to the health of the horse, especially those materials that may be present in unsuitable sawdust. 
In addition to the necessity of securing a mattress whose height and height are suitable for the horse, and this height varies according to the different nature of the land of the barn; If the floor of the barn is made of dirt, then the height of the mattress should not be less than ten centimeters, or twenty-five centimeters if it is made of cement or asphalt.

the fence

The dwelling of horses and horses must contain what allows the horses to go outside safely; For this, it is necessary to put a fence around the barn, so that its height is not less than one meter and approximately twenty centimeters.
For this fence to be safe for horses, one must choose one of the many options that the horse barn fence can be made of, such as wooden panels, boarded wood, metal fences, or polyvinyl chloride, known for short (PVC). , or other materials suitable for this purpose.

horse feeding

Here is an explanation for that:

food

Horse feeding is an important aspect of their upbringing. 
Horses have only one chamber, which does not enable them to break down food through bacterial digestion, like other types of ruminant livestock such as goats and sheep. 
The horses have food directly into what is known as the small stomach through the small intestine; Therefore, horses lack muscles in their stomachs, which causes them to lose the ability to vomit if they eat some fermented foods, such as stored fodder. 
It is recommended to provide fodder, vitamins, minerals, and grains to maintain a balanced diet for horses, and feed is the main food source for horses that can meet most of their diet needs, and the source of these feeds can be natural pastures in which there are grasses, legumes, or hay that should Keep it well so that it is not exposed to damage and rot. 
The horse's diet is not limited to that; A balanced and varied diet must be provided to feed the horse, such as corn and barley; This is to ensure a rapid increase in the weight of the horse, and to gain more health, strength, and fattening. 
It is also recommended to add some substances rich in vitamins, such as soybean meal, and make it part of the horse’s food. In addition, sufficient quantities of food should be provided within multiple meals, and sufficient space to accommodate all horses in the barn, and these foods must be provided in appropriate containers. , avoid placing it on the ground; To ensure that the health of the horse is not endangered.

water

Horses need to drink large amounts of water every day, and these quantities range between 38 to 45 liters of water for horses that weigh approximately 450 kilograms, and with these large quantities of water that horses need, that water that contains some mineral salts Light must be clean, unpolluted, and regularly available to the horses.  A lack of drinking water may cause more problems for horses than a lack of food for them.

horse care

Here is an explanation for that:

daily care

Horses should receive regular grooming on a daily basis; This is to maintain its cleanliness, and the cleanliness of its hair, and to rid it of any materials that may be attached to it, and this daily care gives the opportunity to inspect the horse’s body closely, and it also helps to make the horse strong by stimulating its muscles to grow, as well as something that horses prefer and desire, It is recommended to clean horse hair before and after riding. 
To achieve this, many different tools can be used, such as a brush, a glove for cleaning horse hair, a rough brush, a piece of cloth, or wool, a cotton towel, a hoof cleaning tool, an electric hair clipper, and other tools that care for hair Horse, clean it up. 
Daily cleaning can be taken care of by starting to comb the horse’s head hair with the brush or glove in the direction of hair growth, then cleaning the brush or glove from the hair stuck to it, and moving to the rest of the body areas in the horse, taking into account the use of appropriate tools in every place of the body, and can be used Bare hands for cleaning young horses and massaging their bodies.

Waste cleaning

Stables and stables must be kept clean, and free of residue and droppings, by removing only damp or soiled stable floor bedding; It is not necessary to remove the entire bedding to clean it, and its moisture can be removed by exposing it to the air after removing the horses and equipment from the stable. 
In the event that this is not possible, it is possible to put some of the dry mattress that makes up the floor of the stable, and then wait until the moisture of the old mattress is absorbed by the new mattress that has been placed, and then remove it after that. 
It is recommended to place lime material under the horse's bed; To resist odors and moisture in the stable, the cleaning process may require a daily effort at first, but as soon as some time passes until the cleaning process becomes at least weekly, when the person who takes care of horses becomes aware of the exact locations of their droppings.

exercises

Horses are living creatures that need continuous training and exercise to maintain their fitness, and just as any sporting activity needs many correct practices to perform, horse training needs some correct practices in order to run well. 
Horses should not be given excessive food and drink immediately after training; Because this may cause harm to the health of the horse, in addition to avoiding offering water immediately after the horse has performed the exercises, but some sips of water are provided partially. 
It is important after training to make the horse walk its natural gait without stress, clean it of sweat and dirt, and remove its stud, and it is worth noting that the horses must be given an opportunity to walk for a minimum of one hour per day.

Hot Care

Many different methods can be used to take care of horses in hot weather, including: 
Put the horse in an area away from direct sunlight, or move it to a cool barn with good ventilation. 
Spray the horse's body with cold water, avoiding spraying water directly on the face or ears.
Put ice packs on the blood vessels visible on the horse's neck and legs. 
Avoid providing large quantities of water to the horse, and providing it to them in the form of separate doses every few minutes, and make sure that the water is fresh and cold.
Reducing riding gear that is placed on horses. 
Call the veterinarian if the horse's body temperature exceeds about 40 degrees Celsius, or when you notice an increase in its heart rate, or breathing, even if it is not making any effort.

Cold Care

Many different methods can be followed to take care of horses in cold weather, including:
Make sure to provide enough drinking quantities for the horse in cold weather. 
Increasing the amount of food given to horses in cold weather; This is to provide the horse's body with the calories needed to warm its body and promote its growth. 
Monitoring the weight of the horse during the winter period, and providing a larger amount of food in the event of a decrease in its weight. 
Protecting the horse barn from winds and storms that it may be exposed to in the winter, as horses can withstand low temperatures, and this endurance varies; Depending on the difference in the amount of hair covering their bodies. 
Covering horses with blankets designated for them in the absence of a horse barn, and it should be noted that the blanket should be avoided on horses if their body is wet, or if the blanket is wet. 
Continuing to exercise the horse during the winter period, taking care to avoid exercising in the snow or on the ice.

Healthcare

Here is an explanation for that:

Preventive care

There are many things that can be implemented to secure the preventive care of the horse, including: 
Giving horses the necessary vaccinations, such as the eastern or western equine encephalitis vaccine, the rabies vaccine, and other vaccinations. 
Control of any parasitic organisms that may negatively affect the health of horses, such as tapeworm. 
Carry out annual periodic dental check-ups for horses; Horses may need to put something like braces for their teeth. 
Ensuring the general safety procedures that would maintain the safety of horses. 
Ensure the cleanliness of the tools and facilities used by the horse.

hoof care

Horse hooves grow at a rate ranging between (0.6 cm - 1.3 cm) per month, so horse hooves must be taken care of, trimmed, cut, and kept smooth; This care prevents the horse from being exposed to sudden bends that may harm it. Hoof trimming requires only some ordinary skills, and some tools needed for this, such as a file, pliers, and a hoof knife, which are used to remove the appendages in the hoof, then the pliers are used to remove the edges of the hoof, and these hooves are smoothed and leveled through the file. The rate of hoof growth in horses also varies according to many factors, including: the age of the horse; Younger horses have faster hooves, and the climate; So, the growth of the horse's hoof in the summer is faster than in the winter, the nature of the terrain of the place where the horse lives, and other factors.

Understand the behavior of the horse

A person who is interested in raising horses and horses can understand what these animals feel; And that is by paying attention to some of the signals emanating from it that may indicate a specific meaning; When a horse raises its tail, this indicates that it is feeling excited, or that it is in a state of alert, but if it lowers its tail, it may be in a bad psychological or physical condition, such as feeling submissive, or in pain, and it can also be in a state of annoyance, or anger, and that When he constantly moves and swings her tail.  
Understanding a horse's body language isn't just about the tail; The face, ears, and legs all indicate many things that horses feel; For a horse to raise its hind legs, for example, is a behavior that indicates the defensive posture that the horse may feel, and to open its jaws while showing its teeth and keeping them exposed is an indication of aggression or attacking posture. 
It can also be understood that a horse is on alert when its ears are pointed forward, while its ears hanging down may indicate that it is tired, as well as many bodily signals that may be taken as an indication of a certain feeling in a horse. 
Other behaviors that should be understood are kicking and kicking the floors or walls of the stable, and this behavior is active in horses when feeding is approaching, in addition to some behaviors that may indicate fatigue or laziness, such as moving their bodies or turning their heads from side to side all the time.

Horse care during pregnancy

There are many practices that can be performed to take care of a female horse during pregnancy and lactation, and these practices include: 
Make sure to provide the food necessary to supply the pregnant female with energy, and the diet during pregnancy must contain a mixture of nutrients and important minerals, such as calcium, phosphorous, sugar, salt, copper, and some vitamins, such as vitamin E, which It is given one month before the date of birth, and the feed and natural pastures usually lack all the necessary elements, which means that it is necessary to buy food supplements that contain the elements mentioned, and provide them to the horse during pregnancy. 
Make sure to provide a mixture of grains and minerals to the mare, the female horse, after her birth; This is to provide her with the energy needed for the lactation process. 
These mixtures are offered for three months after birth, at an amount ranging from 225 to 450 grams per forty-five kilograms of horse weight, then this amount is gradually reduced to help the female wean her young. 
Take care to exercise the horse during pregnancy; Where it can be trained naturally, and involved in all kinds of competitions during the first five months of the mare’s pregnancy , then it can be trained lightly until one month before the date of birth, and if this is not possible, it is recommended to make sure that the horse continues to stand for six hours daily. 
Giving pregnant female horses the necessary vaccinations to get rid of worms, like other horses, except that it is recommended to give her Ivermectin vaccination, specifically on the day of birth to prevent the transmission of worms to her young. 
Consult the veterinarian about the types of vaccinations, and the vaccinations that should be given to pregnant horses and their dates; It is forbidden to give horses any vaccinations during the first two months from the date of their pregnancy. 
Securing appropriate care conditions for pregnant horses when they want to transfer them from one place to another, and this is through many procedures, including: Keep the transport trailer clean and make sure it has good ventilation during transport. 
Drive the transport trailer without recklessly. 
Providing food and drink while traveling, in addition to bedding. 
Take care to avoid long-distance transportation during the last month of the horse's pregnancy.

Basics of horse breeding for breeding

The role of stallions is essential in the occurrence of breeding processes, so it is necessary to provide a lot of care and attention to them, and to learn about the basics of managing their life systems accurately, and here are some of these basics:


The role of the stallion in the reproduction process

The stallion contributes to the reproductive process of horses by providing sperm that contain its own genetic traits, and the stallion must have the female provocative traits for the process to take place properly, and this requires the presence of his sexual drive. In addition, the stallion must be able to produce these healthy sex cells throughout the horse's breeding season. The male reproductive system of stallions usually consists of the following: 
testicles It has a number of coiled tubules that are responsible for producing sperm. 
sex glands It has 3 glands. 
series of tubes Responsible for transporting sperms produced in the testicles to the female reproductive system.

How to take care of a stallion and its mating rate

A number of issues must be taken care of for the stallion and its mating rates to obtain desirable reproductive results, and the following is how:

Mating rates

Mating rates of horses are related to a number of things, including the length of the breeding season, and the stallion’s sexual desire for that, so it must be known that a young horse at the age of one year will not be able to mate more than 10, and after reaching 3 years it can mate with 30 mares, while an adult stallion can mate with about 50 mare, but in natural pastures, mating will not occur in half of these numbers.

Feeding and maintaining the health of the stallion

Food is necessary for stallions in the mating seasons, if they must obtain food equivalent to the amount provided to the horse after hard work, that is, about 0.7 kg of grain, in addition to 0.45 kg of hay for every 45 kg of the stallion’s weight. It is also recommended to allow the stallion to graze grass as a kind of exercise sports to increase activity.

Available mating methods

Horse mating methods are divided into 3 sections: 
manual mating By providing the right conditions for horses to mate, a method of mating that breeders start following when the horse reaches the age of two years. Artificial Vaccination This method results in mixing of the strains. pasture mating This type of stallion can increase the stability of stallions with mares that are suitable for them, and the disadvantages are that the horses are less inclined to work, and the number of mares with which they mate.

Tips to increase birth rates

Some tips can be given to increase the birth rate of horses: 
Allow the interbreeding of individuals with sound genetic traits. 
Choose the period in which the mare is in a stage of sexual agitation. 
Choose a pasture breeding method if feasible. 
Choosing a physically fit mare for breeding, as it is preferable not to be fat. 
Study the mare's sympathetic cycle well. 
Monitor the health and safety of the pregnant mare periodically.

The relationship of man to horses

The human relationship with horses goes back to ancient times, specifically in the period between three thousand to four thousand years BC; In those eras , man was able to tame horses , and benefit from their meat and milk, and due to the speed of horses, with the progression of time they became used instead of other animals, such as oxen that were used to plow the land and ride. Speed ​​was not the only factor that established man's relationship with horses since antiquity; The strength factor was the most important factor in the formation of this relationship, and this comes through the ability of the horse, and its ability to carry a human. The concept of human riding and horse riding has developed; In the past, horse riding was referred to as a concept associated with authority and rule, and riding was the preserve of the ruling class in many regions, but this culture no longer exists in our time; This depends on many factors, such as the availability of different means of transportation, and the increase in people's leisure time; These factors have promoted the ownership of horses by some people of non-higher classes, despite the presence of many dilemmas that may be an obstacle to owning this animal, such as the high cost of caring for it.
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