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Dog diseases transmitted to humans

Transmission of diseases from animals to humans 

Transmission of diseases from animals to humans

Various infectious diseases can be transmitted to humans in many ways, including direct contact, indirect contact, and human-to-human transmission, as well as from animal to human. Different types of foreign bodies such as viruses , bacteria, parasites, and fungi can cause all kinds of infectious diseases. Malaria, measles , and respiratory diseases are among the most common diseases. Examples of septic diseases. The transmission of septic diseases from animals to humans occurs through scratching or biting the animal to humans, or when dealing with animal waste. In this article, dog diseases that are transmitted to humans will be discussed, and the most common of these diseases will be detailed.


Dog diseases transmitted to humans 

The relationship of dogs with humans is a relationship that provides comfort, reduces stress, and secures an increased sense of relaxation, as dogs have a positive impact on various aspects of life, influencing the social and emotional side and ensuring a relatively active lifestyle, but despite all the positives that these pets possess, there are many It is one of the dog diseases that is transmitted to humans, and that everyone who owns a dog must know it, detect it and how to deal with it, and although microorganisms that cause diseases are rarely transmitted from dogs to humans, they may cause many diseases, which vary from being Mild skin diseases to serious systemic diseases must be dealt with seriously, and here comes a mention of some of the most common dog diseases that are transmitted to humans, which will be detailed separately later:

Campylobacter disease, which results from infection with Campylobacter. 

Tapeworm infection in dogs. 

Infection with hookworm. 

Roundworm infection. rabies.

As for dog diseases that are transmitted to humans, which are less common than the previous ones, the following can be mentioned:

Maltese fever: It is a bacterial disease that is transmitted to humans through unpasteurized milk or infected animals. Patients with brucellosis suffer from the onset of symptoms within 6 to 8 weeks of infection, and the symptoms are similar to those of a cold , and last from 2 to 4 weeks, but from It can develop into a chronic infection that is difficult to treat.

Cryptosporidium: It is a disease that can be transmitted through infected dogs or contaminated water or food. This parasite causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as watery diarrhea, painful abdominal cramps and nausea. It is often self-limiting and usually lasts from 2 to 4 days. Patients with weakened immune system .

Echinococcus or hydatid disease: This disease affects many organs in the body, and usually does not cause symptoms for long periods of time, as it can remain asymptomatic for several years, and symptoms begin when the cyst begins to enlarge and put pressure on neighboring or affected organs, and the most common areas Infection with these cysts are the liver and lungs.

Giardia: Symptoms of infection with this parasite include diarrhea, greasy stools, and dehydration. Infected people may also suffer from abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Symptoms usually persist after infection for one to two weeks. 

Leishmaniasis: which in turn is divided into cutaneous leishmaniasis , which is the most common, and causes one or more areas of painless skin ulcers, and visceral leishmaniasis, which leads to fever, weight loss, an enlarged spleen , and anemia , and dogs can transmit both types together. 

Lyme disease: Lyme disease is a dog disease that is transmitted to humans due to a germ called Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted mainly by a tick bite, and people with the disease suffer from a red rash at the site of the bite about seven days after the infection, followed by symptoms similar to those of the common cold, This disease can spread to different parts of the body and cause serious problems when not treated. 

Plague: It is a bacterial disease that occurs in animals and humans, and it can cause very serious problems when not treated, and people often develop plague as a result of exposure to flea bites or through contact with body fluids of infected animals, and the most common types of plague include - which is the plague Bubonic-: high-grade and sudden fever, chills, headache, swollen lymph nodes, etc.

There are also many dog ​​diseases that are transmitted to humans, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pasteurella , ringworm , Rocky Mountain fever, salmonella , and others. 


Campylobacter or campylobacter infection 

Campylobacter is a dog disease that is transmitted to humans, and it causes symptoms similar to those seen in salmonella infection, such as diarrhea and fever, and it can lead to many dangerous complications, and children have a higher chance of contracting this disease than adults, but infection can occur in all Ages, and males have a higher chance of infection than females, and injuries are more common in the summer than in the winter, and the infection usually lasts for a week, and symptoms begin a few days after the infection, and the most common symptom of infection is diarrhea, and blood can also be seen with the stoolThe disease can also be associated with nausea and abdominal pain, in addition to fever and flatulence, and it is worth noting that some people do not suffer from symptoms at all, and some who have a weak immune system can develop very serious sepsis, and treatment is based on Relief of symptoms at first, but when there is a weakened immune system may be prescribed levofloxacin, or in other cases azithromycin or ciprofloxacin.


Canine tapeworm 

Canine tapeworm can be seen in dogs and cats, and it is also classified among the dog diseases that are transmitted to humans, and it can be transmitted to dogs by swallowing infected fleas, and despite the prevalence of tapeworms, it rarely causes infection in pets or humans, It is possible to detect this infection by seeing small pieces in the shape of a grain of rice moving close to the anal area, or in recent stool, and it is possible that the animal affected in severe injuries suffers from weight loss and mild diarrhea, and the infection occurs in children at a greater rate than adults in humans, But the disease often remains asymptomatic, and it is recommended to control fleas in the environment surrounding pets as the best way to prevent the occurrence of this disease. 


Infection with hookworm 

Ancylostoma worm is one of the most common pathogens of dog diseases that is transmitted to humans, as it can be transmitted to the infected person when he approaches the dog waste with bare feet, sits near it, or touches the feces of the infected dog, as this worm can enter through the superficial layers of the skin and cause disease , which A person usually presents with the following symptoms, or some of them:

A rash in one area of ​​the skin, which is typically red, raised, and itchy. 

Weight loss. Loss of appetite . 

Respiratory complications such as wheezing and coughing . 

fever. abdominal pain Diarrhea . 

Extreme fatigue and general weakness. 

Malnutrition or iron deficiency anemia . 

Problems related to physical and psychological development in children due to severe anemia. Heart failure and tissue swelling over a wide area of ​​the body as a result of severe anemia.


rabies 

When talking about dog diseases that are transmitted to humans, it is necessary to talk about rabies, as it is one of the deadly viruses that can be transmitted from humans to animals, and despite the closeness of the name of this disease to the animal of the dog, the virus that causes the infection can be transmitted from The path of many wild animals, such as raccoons, skunks, bats, and foxes, in addition to dogs, cats, and farm animals, and the disease is transmitted mainly through the bite of the infected animal to humans, and due to the seriousness of this disease and its being one of the most dangerous dog diseases transmitted to humans, its symptoms and methods used in it will be detailed. Try to treat and prevent it.


Symptoms of rabies 

The symptoms seen at the beginning of rabies may be very similar to those that occur with a cold, and it may last for several days, while the symptoms develop later, as the subsequent symptoms of rabies include the following:

Fever. Headache . 

nausea. 

vomiting. 

Worry. 

commotion. 

Confused. 

hyperkinesis difficulty swallowing excessive salivation Fear of drinking liquids due to difficulty swallowing water in general. 

hallucinations 

Insomnia or difficulty sleeping. 

palsy. 

And since this disease is one of the most dangerous dog diseases transmitted to humans, medical care must be obtained quickly and directly after exposure to a dog bite or any other animal, or exposure to any animal that may be infected with rabies. Based on the various injuries and the condition in which the infection occurred, The doctor can decide the most appropriate treatment option in order to prevent the occurrence of this disease, and appropriate medical care must be sought even when it is not certain that the bite is present, for example, when waking up and finding a bat in the room, it is possible that the person has been exposed The bat bites without him knowing it or waking up, and then he must guess the presence of the bite and act on this basis.


Medical procedures when exposed to rabies 

When rabies occurs, there is no effective treatment option to get rid of it, and although a few patients have recovered and survived this disease, it often causes death, and therefore when exposed to a dog bite or suspecting the presence of rabies, one must go directly to the medical centers specialized in order to obtain a series of injections that prevent the spread of infection and enhance it within the body, and the animal that the person bitten is usually examined for infection in it, but when the animal is not present, it is better to guess that he has rabies, and this matter It can depend on many other factors, such as the type of animal and the condition in which the bite occurred, and injections intended for the prevention of rabies include the following:

A quick-acting injection, which contains the immunoglobulin of the rabies virus, in order to prevent infection from occurring quickly and effectively, and part of this injection can be given near the bite area if possible, and as soon as possible after its occurrence.

A series of anti-rabies vaccines, in order to train the body to know the required virus, in order to enhance the immune ability to resist it. Rabies vaccines are obtained as injections in the arm, and are usually given in the form of four injections over a period of 14 days.


Roundworm infection 

Roundworms are also one of the most common dog diseases that are transmitted to humans, and these worms cause what is called toxoplasmosis. Both dogs and animals can contract this disease by swallowing the eggs of these worms from the environment surrounding the shell. The placenta, milk, and colostrum emanating from the mother dogs, which leads to the transmission of the disease to young dogs, which in turn may suffer from poor growth and development, and it can also have the appearance of a large and abnormal abdomen, while in humans, the infection is more common. In children from adults, there are two types of infection in humans, which are as follows:

Migratory eye larvae: which occurs when the larvae invade the retina, causing scarring and inflammation, and carry the chance of blindness. 

Migratory viscera larvae: which occurs when the larvae invade visceral parts of the body, such as the liver, lung, and central nervous system.


Prevention of dog diseases that are transmitted to humans 

To achieve the prevention of dog diseases that are transmitted to humans, some procedures and guidelines recommended by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States of America CDC can be taken, and among the measures to prevent these diseases are the following:

Wash hands with soap and water after touching dogs, dog saliva, or dog waste. Children should also be sure to wash their hands after approaching dogs. Effective hand washing can reduce the risk of infection with various canine diseases that are transmitted to humans. 

Avoid dog bites and scratches that can happen through them. Dog bites carry many risks and problems, most notably the possibility of rabies. Therefore, care must be taken when dealing with unfamiliar animals, and approaching dogs with caution, even when these dogs appear to be pets from the outside.

Complete disposal of dog waste, especially when it is in areas where children play. Cleaning up dog waste can help keep the place safe from dog diseases that are transmitted to humans, in addition to reducing the possibility of these diseases being transmitted to people or other animals. 

Routinely visit the animal doctor when owning a pet, for the general evaluation of the animal, maintaining its health, and keeping it away from various diseases.

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