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Albatross

Albatross

Albatross is one of the largest birds. It is characterized by an effective ability to fly and fly long distances and can travel thousands of kilometers in one flight, the adult weighs approximately 10 kg, lives in the ocean and comes to land on the islands for reproduction and feeds on squid and fish by hunting them in several ways, including diving, and makes a long journey to feed and feed its young by vomiting food. Albatross Arabic word transferred by the Portuguese.

They are large seabirds that live in the Southern Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. It was not found in the North Atlantic region, but only its fossils were found there, which indicates that it lived there. There are four main species of albatross: the great albatross, the North Pacific albatross, the mollymox, and the sooty albatross. It is divided into twenty-one species identified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

Great albatrosses are among the largest birds to fly. All albatrosses are very good at flying and spend most of their lives in the air. They eat squid, fish and krill. Albatrosses come ashore to nest often on islands and usually near the nests of other birds.

Nineteen of the 21 albatross species are endangered. This is partly because animals such as rats and cats attack their eggs, chicks, and even adult birds, and ocean pollution with plastic waste and oil spills kill albatrosses. Sometimes there may not be enough fish to eat due to overfishing. The main cause of endangerment for albatrosses is longline fishing, which causes many albatrosses to be injured by fishing rods. causing the birds to drown.


Aviation

Albatrosses are very large, have very strong legs, and unlike other sea birds, they can walk well on land.

The only time an albatross flap its wings in flight is when it takes off.

Albatrosses need to get salt out of their bodies because they drink ocean water. All birds have a large gland at the top of their beak above their eyes. This gland is sometimes useless to birds that don't need it. However, albatrosses use it to help excrete salt water. Scientists aren't sure exactly how it works, however they do know that it helps expel the salt, making a liquid that makes salt water drip from her nose.

Adult albatrosses usually have a dark upperwing and back, and white underparts. By the time they reach flight age, it takes several years for albatrosses to attain their full plumage. The largest albatross can have a wingspan of up to 340 cm (11.2 ft).

Albatrosses flying north sometimes fly clockwise and those flying south fly in the opposite direction. Most of the energy used in its flight is not spent traveling long distances but rather when landing, taking off and hunting. This helps the albatross fly longer distances and find good food. They can easily fly over wind and waves, however, since their long wings do not contain strong muscles or energy, they cannot flap in flight. This is why albatrosses must stop in calm seas and rest on the surface of the ocean until the wind starts blowing harder. When taking off, albatrosses need to run first to help the wing lift them up, but they are notorious for clumsiness when landing.


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Most albatrosses are found in the southern hemisphere from Antarctica to Australia, South Africa and South America. However, the four species of albatross that live in the North Pacific Ocean are ubiquitous. Three of these species are found in the North Pacific Ocean from Hawaii to Japan, California and Alaska, while the fourth species is found in the Galapagos Islands and searches for its food on the coast of South America.

It is not clearly known why albatrosses became extinct in the North Atlantic. Some believe it was due to the sea level rising at the time.

Sometimes scientists may use the satellite when trying to identify albatrosses, they are trying to figure out which way albatrosses travel across the ocean to find food using satellites. There is evidence that the sea separates different species of albatross. There is also evidence of different pathways for both sexes of the same species. A study showed that males forage for food in the west while females roam in the east.


Diet

The albatross eats cephalopods, fish, crustaceans and their offal. Sometimes they eat carrion or other types of zooplankton. However, the importance of each food differs according to the type, some may want to eat only squid or others may eat more fish. Of the two species of albatross that live in Hawaii, one, the black-legged albatross, eats mostly fish. The other species, the Laysan albatross, eats more squid instead.

Sometimes albatrosses may use the help of other animals to eat. For example some squids are too big for the albatross to catch alive. Instead, albatrosses eat squids that die after mating or after being vomited by squid-eating whales (such as sperm whales). Other species, such as the black-browed albatross or the gray-headed albatross, eat smaller species of squid, and they don't eat as much. Also sometimes the waving albatross has been seen stealing food from other birds.

Until now, albatrosses were thought to eat whatever food they found on the surface of the sea, including dead squid, fish that had been washed up by waves, or other dead animals. This was thought because some species do not dive deeper than a meter. However, this theory was not correct because some species have an average diving depth of nearly 5 meters and can dive as deep as 12.5 meters.


Education and dance

Albatrosses live in groups and usually nest on islands where no human lives. Many bowler albatrosses and black-legged albatrosses nest under trees in the open forest. Albatrosses usually return to their group after leaving for a while to find a mate. This is one of their strongest instincts and a study of the Laysan albatross showed that the usual distance between where they hatched and where the bird makes its own territory was 22 meters (72 feet).

Like most seabirds, albatrosses live much longer than other birds. She also does not look for her soul mate for a long time. Some species of albatross live up to 50 years. The oldest recorded albatross was the northern royal albatross, which lived for 61 years.

Before mating, the albatrosses gather together and spend many years practicing the mating rules and the special "dances" for which the family is famous.

When albatrosses learn these kinds of movements and dances, they also learn things like pointing, calling, making noise with their beak, staring, and sometimes all of these in combination. When the bird first comes it dances with many other albatrosses but after a few years the number of birds it dances with decreases until one is chosen and then after they become a pair they don't dance again.

Albatrosses have difficulty laying their babies, it takes a long time for the bird to lay an egg and raise a chick. It takes more than a year for large birds to raise a chick. Birds lay one egg, white with reddish-brown spots. But if the egg is taken by other predators or accidentally broken, the parents do not lay another egg throughout the year. Larger eggs weigh between 200–510 g (7.1–18 oz). Albatross pairs usually do not separate, but this may happen sometimes if several years have passed without us being able to lay a single egg.

All albatrosses of the south live in large nests that they make of grass, soil, and sometimes penguin feathers. In all albatross species, both parents incubate the egg between one day and three weeks. The incubation period lasts from 70 to 80 days. This period may become longer for larger albatrosses. When you do that it takes a lot of energy and an adult can lose up to 83g (2.9oz) of body weight per day.

After hatching, the chicks are cared for and guarded for three weeks until they are large enough to care for and fight for themselves. During this time the parents feed the chicks small meals. After the chick is a bit older it is fed larger meals by both parents. The parents take turns going and finding food such as fresh squid, fish, and krill.

Albatross chicks take a long time to learn how to fly). In the case of larger albatrosses it can take up to 280 days. Even for smaller albatrosses it can take anywhere from 140 to 170 days. Like many seabirds, albatross chicks later become heavier than their mother and father. When preparing their bodies for flight they may also fluff their flight feathers which sometimes makes them as heavy as their parents.


albatrosses and humans

The name

The name albatross comes from the Arabic word for diver. This word later became English, in Portuguese the word still used today for bird, albatross, came from the English albatross.

In the southern hemisphere, most people still call the albatross a mollemoc. The name Diomede, given to the albatross by Linnaeus, is taken from the story of the transformation of the Greek warrior Diomedes into a bird.

in culture

The albatross has been described as "the most legendary of all birds". When people feel sad or feel that they are carrying a burden they may use the phrase "albatrosses around their neck". There is a legend that sailors don't shoot or eat albatrosses because they think it brings bad luck but in reality sailors kill and eat them a lot. They were often seen as the spirits of lost sailors. The Maori people used the wing bones of an albatross to carve tattoos on their skins for ceremonies.

Human threats

Although they were legendary birds in many legends, albatrosses are still attacked by humans. At first the Polynesians and Aleuts hunted albatrosses. When Europeans began to explore the world they also started catching the bird. Either by catching them from boats and eating them, or for sport.

Of the 21 species of albatross that the IUCN has noted on its list, 19 are threatened and the other two are very close to being threatened.

In the Midway Islands there have been many aviation accidents due to collisions with the Laysan albatross, causing fatalities in both albatrosses and humans. The tall towers killed 3,000 birds between 1964-1965. Because of this, the towers were demolished. Recently people have tried to stop human activity on the islands and this has helped reduce the number of birds dying.

Another threat to the albatross is introduced species such as mice or feral cats (cats that live unattended by people) that attack the albatross or its chicks and eggs. Albatrosses lived on islands where there were few land mammals and were not adapted to defend themselves against them. Even rats can be dangerous. For example, on Gough Island, albatross chicks are often attacked and eaten by house mice.

Sometimes albatrosses die as well as many other species of seabirds because they eat plastic. The amount of plastic ingested in the seas has increased rapidly since the first record in the 1960s. This is due to the waste thrown into the sea by ships and the garbage dumped in the ocean. Plastic is impossible to digest, and undigested plastic prevents the digestion of other foods. This makes the birds starve to death. The plastic can even be regurgitated and fed to the chicks by the parents. Although plastic is not the main cause of death for albatrosses, it is still a serious problem.

Scientists and people trying to help albatrosses are working with governments and fishermen to stop these threats. They came up with solutions such as fishing at night, dyeing the bait blue to hide it from albatrosses, putting the bait underwater, and more. For example, a study by scientists and fishermen in New Zealand tested putting fishing lines within the reach of certain albatross species. Some of these ideas have been successfully used by stopping the number of black albatrosses that have died in the past 10 years. Conservationists have also worked to prevent the introduction of other species to protect the albatross.

An important step towards protecting albatrosses and other seabirds is the 2001 treaty known as the Albatross Conservation Convention that was signed by thirteen countries including Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, South Africa, France, Peru, Uruguay and the United Kingdom. One of the main activities of the Convention is to provide expert advice on mitigation of by-catch of seabirds to fisheries managers in both domestic and high seas fisheries.


species

Great albatross (Diomedia)

North Pacific albatross

Short-tailed albatross

Black albatrosses

The albatross is black-browed

White-headed albatross

Gray headed albatross

Atlantic yellow-nosed albatross

Indian yellow-nosed albatross

Light-capped albatrosses

Albatross family Diomedeidae

It includes 13 species, including: The wandering albatross has two wings that extend more than three and a quarter meters, and it is the largest wing known to a living bird. The adult bird is predominantly black except for the tips of its white wings, while the young birds are brown in color until they reach about 135 cm. The courtship scene is noteworthy, with both male and female standing facing each other, wings spread, necks outstretched, heads swaying from side to side, touching necks, breasts, and beaks, each raising its short tail on its back.

The female lays one egg weighing about half a kilogram, and the incubation period extends to more than 80 days.

The wavy albatross nests only on Hood Island. It has a long, dark beak, with a large, white head and neck.

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